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Commercial Manufacturing of Omega-3 Enriched Pork Products and the Effects of Flaxseed on d,1 [Alpha]-Tocopherol Acetate in Swine Diets on Lipid and Pigment Stability and Various Pork Quality Characteristics
Dissertation - University Access Only
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Department / School
John R. Romans
Alteration of lipid composition through the use of supplemental omega-3 rich oil sources, in swine diets, has provided pork products with a more desirable polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. Consumers perceive meat as a high source of saturated fat in their diets. In an effort to lower dietary saturated fat consumption consumers are making a gradual shift from animal-derived to plant based meals (Sloan, 1994). Closer trimming of fresh meat cuts has not altered the perception that meat is a high source of fat and that it is difficult to fit into a well balanced low fat diet. However, it has indicated to consumers that they may be receiving a better value by not paying for visible fat. Due to the skepticism surrounding the healthfulness of a diet containing lean meats, this research was conducted to develop omega-3 enriched pork products that were acceptable to consumers. Pork products and tissues from hogs fed a diet containing 15% ground flaxseed for the last 28 d prior to slaughter were analyzed for fatty acid composition, lipid stability and consumer acceptance. Pork products from flaxseed fed hogs were higher in omega-3 fatty acids, especially l 8:3n3 and 20:5, compared to controls. However, these products were also highly predisposed to lipid oxidation. In-home consumers rated bacon and Braunschweiger from flaxseed fed hogs equally favorable and acceptable in flavor. However, consumers in a central-location test rated flaxseed bacon less desirable than control bacon. In the second phase, pig diets were also supplemented with a-tocopherol to assess the efficacy of diets containing a -tocopherol and 15% flaxseed on pigment and lipid stability and other pork quality indicators. The addition of a -tocopherol greatly improved lipid stability during the 6-d retail shelf-life display of fresh ham slices and loin chops from flaxseed supplemented and control hogs. Vitamin E had no effect on tissue fatty acid composition. Consumers in a multi-regional in-home taste panel rated bacon, sausage, and pizza dough equally acceptable across treatments. Consumers ranked themselves as "light users" of bacon and sausage--consuming these products less than four times per month. More than 50% of the consumers indicated they were "heavy users" of pizza--consuming pizza four or more times a month. This research indicated that supplementing swine diets with a-tocopherol acetate and 15% ground flaxseed, provided pigment and lipid stable products throughout a 6-d retail shelf-life display. These pork products were omega-3 enriched with "healthful" omega-3 fatty acids and were highly acceptable to the consumers. Furthermore, swine diets supplemented with a -tocopherol acetate and 15% ground flaxseed did not affect overall average daily gains, muscle tenderness, or muscle pH.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
Omega-3 fatty acids
Swine -- Feeding and feeds
South Dakota State University
Specht-Overholt, Susan M., "Commercial Manufacturing of Omega-3 Enriched Pork Products and the Effects of Flaxseed on d,1 [Alpha]-Tocopherol Acetate in Swine Diets on Lipid and Pigment Stability and Various Pork Quality Characteristics" (1994). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 5881.