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Document Type

Dissertation - University Access Only

Award Date

1994

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Animal Science

First Advisor

John R. Romans

Abstract

Alteration of lipid composition through the use of supplemental omega-3 rich oil sources, in swine diets, has provided pork products with a more desirable polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. Consumers perceive meat as a high source of saturated fat in their diets. In an effort to lower dietary saturated fat consumption consumers are making a gradual shift from animal-derived to plant based meals (Sloan, 1994). Closer trimming of fresh meat cuts has not altered the perception that meat is a high source of fat and that it is difficult to fit into a well balanced low fat diet. However, it has indicated to consumers that they may be receiving a better value by not paying for visible fat. Due to the skepticism surrounding the healthfulness of a diet containing lean meats, this research was conducted to develop omega-3 enriched pork products that were acceptable to consumers. Pork products and tissues from hogs fed a diet containing 15% ground flaxseed for the last 28 d prior to slaughter were analyzed for fatty acid composition, lipid stability and consumer acceptance. Pork products from flaxseed fed hogs were higher in omega-3 fatty acids, especially l 8:3n3 and 20:5, compared to controls. However, these products were also highly predisposed to lipid oxidation. In-home consumers rated bacon and Braunschweiger from flaxseed fed hogs equally favorable and acceptable in flavor. However, consumers in a central-location test rated flaxseed bacon less desirable than control bacon. In the second phase, pig diets were also supplemented with a-tocopherol to assess the efficacy of diets containing a -tocopherol and 15% flaxseed on pigment and lipid stability and other pork quality indicators. The addition of a -tocopherol greatly improved lipid stability during the 6-d retail shelf-life display of fresh ham slices and loin chops from flaxseed supplemented and control hogs. Vitamin E had no effect on tissue fatty acid composition. Consumers in a multi-regional in-home taste panel rated bacon, sausage, and pizza dough equally acceptable across treatments. Consumers ranked themselves as "light users" of bacon and sausage--consuming these products less than four times per month. More than 50% of the consumers indicated they were "heavy users" of pizza--consuming pizza four or more times a month. This research indicated that supplementing swine diets with a-tocopherol acetate and 15% ground flaxseed, provided pigment and lipid stable products throughout a 6-d retail shelf-life display. These pork products were omega-3 enriched with "healthful" omega-3 fatty acids and were highly acceptable to the consumers. Furthermore, swine diets supplemented with a -tocopherol acetate and 15% ground flaxseed did not affect overall average daily gains, muscle tenderness, or muscle pH.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Pork
Omega-3 fatty acids
Flaxseed
Swine -- Feeding and feeds

Format

application/pdf

Publisher

South Dakota State University

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