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Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Animal Science

First Advisor

J.R. Romans


Wholesale ribs (n=40) from carcasses representing the full range of USDA yield grades 2 and 3 were dissected to determine composition from anterior end to posterior end (USDA, 1989). Packers/processors, supermarket meat managers and restaurant meat purchasers were surveyed to determine industry utilization of the beef wholesale rib. Selecting for lower USDA yield grades increased the boneless ribeye/carcass yield and would increase profit for the packer. Lower USDA yield grades also increased the IMPS 112/IMPS 112A yield (USDA, 197 5). Since the price difference between IMPS 112 and IMPS 112A is based on this IMPS 112/IMPS 112A yield, this price difference would be narrowed with lower USDA yield grades. Seam fat was not affected dramatically by USDA yield grade. There was much greater difference in seam fat amounts from different anatomical locations within the wholesale rib than there was between wholesale ribs from carcasses of different USDA yield grades. Kernel fat was found in considerably higher amounts in the 7th, 8th and 9th rib bone sections. A more value-based pricing system could be employed if the 10th to 12th rib bone section was sold separately. Removal of the lip from IMPS 112A decreased the fat content of ribeyes by approximately 46 percent. This large decrease in fat could make the ribeye more appealing to today's consumer. Seam fat contained a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids than external fat, and kernel fat was higher in saturated fatty acids than lip fat. Seam fat, particularly kernel fat, is a great concern among people in the business of merchandizing beef ribeyes. Simply trimming the kernel fat leaves an unappealing hole in the center of the steak. The vast majority of supermarkets and restaurants purchase lip-on ribeyes and then trim fat from the lip. Excess fat is being transported from packer/processor to buyer because the buyer can purchase lip-on ribeyes for a lower price per unit of weight compared to lip-off ribeyes. However, most packers/processors establish a pricing level for lip-off ribeyes according to the yield compared to lip-on ribeyes. Therefore, the ribeye purchaser is paying the same price per serving for lip-off ribeyes and lip-on ribeyes, plus a labor savings is realized with lip-off ribeyes by not trimming the lip. Purchasers of ribeyes need to have knowledge of "cost per serving" versus "cost per unit of weight". A large percentage of ribeye steaks were merchandized by supermarkets with no reference to a particular USDA quality grade. However, there are vast differences in what is currently offered to consumers from different regions across the United States.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Beef -- Composition
Beef industry
Food -- Fat content




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