lupines, white and blue lupines, legume grain
Lupines are relatively new in the United States but are an ancient cultivated legume grain in other parts of the world. Lupines have been cultivated for over 3,000 years in the Mediterranean and in the highland regions of South America. The most important lupine species include both white and blue lupines. For many years, most varieties of these species were “bitter lupines” which contained alkaloids toxic to livestock. In 1935, German plant breeders developed varieties which were low in alkaloid content and are referred to as “sweet lupines”.
Hall, Bob G., "Lupines, A New Crop" (1985). SDSU Extension Extra Archives. 244.