20.18 linear feet (31 boxes) photographs, sound recordings, moving image materials
Benjamin Reifel was a Lakota Sioux and a Republican United States Congressman from the First District of South Dakota. This collection of his papers is composed of memorabilia, scrapbooks, campaign items, and personal items related to Reifel's career as a public servant, especially his years in the United States Senate and his work with the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Benjamin Reifel was born on September 19, 1906 in a log cabin near Parmelee, South Dakota, on the Rosebud Reservation. He was the son of a German-American father, William Reifel, and a full-blooded Lakota Sioux, Lucy Burning Breast. Ben Reifel was an enrolled member of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe; his Indian name was Lone Feather.
He attended both a Rosebud Reservation boarding school and a county school. He graduated from the eighth grade at age sixteen and spoke both the Lakota and the English languages. After working on his parents' farm for three years, he entered the School of Agriculture in Brookings, S.D. Upon completion of this high school program in 1928, he enrolled as a special student at South Dakota State College. He paid his own way through four years of college, with the aid of one of the first loans made available to Indian students under the program for the education of Indians recommended by the Merriam survey. He graduated in 1932 with a Bachelor of Science degree in agriculture. In his senior year, he was elected President of the Students' Association. Mr. Reifel married a college classmate, Alice Janet Johnson of Erwin, SD, on December 26, 1933. They had only one child, Loyce Nadine, who is married to Emery Andersen.
After graduation in 1932, Ben was hired as boy's advisor at Hare's School in Mission, S.D. In 1933, he began a long, distinguished career with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, when he was appointed "farm agent" at Oglala, on the Pine Ridge Reservation. That first appointment lasted only a year before he was promoted to "field agent" at the headquarters in Pierre, SD. He was assigned to promote the new programs under the Indian Reorganization Act signed by President Roosevelt in 1934. This was a period of drought and intense hardship on the reservations, and young Ben, although meeting with counter agitation from some members of the tribes, was extraordinarily successful in winning support for the Reorganization Act, first at Pine Ridge and later on other reservations across South Dakota. He is credited with the major responsibility for making the programs of the Bureau effective on South Dakota reservations.
World War II interrupted his career in the B.I.A. Mr. Reifel had been commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Army Reserve in 1931. In March of 1942, Ben was ordered to active duty and served in the Army until July 1946. He obtained distinction in France and Germany and achieved the rank of Lt. Colonel. After his discharge, Ben continued his work with the BIA. He was appointed Tribal Relations Officer and later served as Superintendent of the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota.
In 1949, Mr. Reifel felt the need to continue his education. He was awarded a scholarship in public administration at Harvard University, where he received his Master’s Degree in 1950. A John Hay Whitney Foundation Opportunity Fellowship enabled him to further his education. He completed his Doctorate in Public Administration in 1952. After graduation, Dr. Reifel returned once more to the BIA. After a brief period in the Bureau of Indian Affairs office in Washington, D.C., he returned to Fort Berthold as Reservation Superintendent. He then served at the Pine Ridge Reservation and in 1955 was appointed Area Director of the Aberdeen Area Office in Aberdeen, SD. Now responsible for more than a thousand employees, and for application of federal policies and programs among the Indians of South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska, he played his strongest role as administrator, serving to within three years of retirement.
During this period and immediately following, the distinction of Dr. Reifel's career was marked by several awards. He received the Outstanding American Indian Award in 1956 and the Annual Indian Achievement Award by the "Indian Council Fire" in 1960. That same year he received the Silver Antelope Award from the Boy Scouts, also the Silver Beaver, Silver Buffalo, and Gray Wolf Awards in Scouting. He also received the Department of Interior's Distinguished Service Award in 1961 for an outstanding career with the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
In 1960, Dr. Reifel resigned from the Bureau to run for Congress in the First District, South Dakota. He was elected by a substantial margin and served for five terms as Representative from South Dakota. His political popularity was reflected in the solid support he received in every election. He was regarded as a "conservative Republican," and a thinker who prepared himself well on legislative matters, always able to give a substantial and thoughtful basis for his stand on issues. He was the first person of Sioux ancestry to serve in the Congress, and the only Native American in Congress throughout the 1960's.
While a member of congress, Dr. Reifel held several important committee assignments. In his first term, he was appointed to the House Agricultural Committee; in his second, to the House Committee on Appropriations. Thereafter, he served as ranking Republican on the House Appropriations subcommittee on Interior Department Affairs.
Using these important posts, Congressman Reifel gave distinguished service on behalf of his constituents. He worked hard for farming interests in South Dakota and the plains states in general, opposing cuts in farm support programs, pushing the Oahe irrigation project, and similar matters vital to the state. At the same time, he continued to work vigorously for Indian education, with significant accomplishments. A stern opponent of segregation, he believed that the key to the plight of the Indian people lay in educational programs enrolling Indian and non-Indian students together in modern progressive facilities. While in congress Dr. Reifel gave his support to the Civil Rights Act of 1966 and to the act increasing the minimum wage. Reifel was instrumental in getting the Earth Resources Observation Systems center (EROS) located in South Dakota and in keeping Ellsworth Air Force Base as an active military base in the state. On a broader national level, he was instrumental in securing passage of legislation, which created the National Arts Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Despite his popularity and success, Congressman Reifel decided not to seek reelection in 1970. Although intending to retire in 1971, he remained very active. He accepted an appointment by President Nixon as chairman of the National Capital Planning Commission, and served as Special Assistant for Indian programs to the Director of the National Park Service in the Department of the Interior. He also served as Interim Commissioner of Indian Affairs during the last two months of the Ford Administration. Ben also gave many speeches, speaking at Memorial Day and July 4th celebrations and several high school and university commencement exercises.
Throughout the 1960's and 1970's, Ben was a member of several organizations. He was a member of the Masons, Rotarians, and Elks. He also served on the National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church and the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America. He also served as National president of Arrow, Inc., an Indian service organization. In 1977, Ben became a trustee of the South Dakota Art Museum in Brookings, SD and served terms as their board president in 1982-83. He established the first Native American collection at the Art Museum in 1977, donating most of his personal collection.
Since Reifel's retirement in 1970, he was honored by several South Dakota colleges and universities. He received honorary doctorates from South Dakota State University, the University of South Dakota, and Northern State College.
Ben's first wife, Alice Johnson Reifel, died of pneumonia on February 8, 1972. Ben remarried on August 14, 1972 to Frances U. Colby of De Smet, S.D. Ben died of Cancer on January 2, 1990.
This collection is composed of memorabilia, scrapbooks, campaign items, and personal items related to Reifel's career as a public servant, especially his years in the United States Senate and his work with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The bulk of congressional material is memorabilia and scrapbooks and not records related to his term of office. Other materials are related chiefly to his post-congressional speaking career.
The activities series is composed of files related to activities that Reifel worked on throughout his life. These items include correspondence and miscellaneous items from Reifel's work with the Boy Scouts of America, the National Park Service, the South Dakota Art Museum and the South Dakota Committee on the Humanities. There are four files of Dakota Territory Citizen Certificates which was a project Reifel worked on after being elected for the first time. These include thank you letters from every member of Congress. Also included are items about Native Americans, trips made by Reifel while in Congress, and several activities that were executed by virtue of being a Congressman.
Awards and Plaques are composed of certificates, medals, ribbons and honors received by Reifel over the years. Included are commemorations, certificates of appreciation and honorary degrees. Also included are gavels and medals, some from the Boy Scouts of America. This material is arranged alphabetically except for unusual items (i.e. gavels, medals), which are arranged by size.
The plaques consist of honors received by Reifel over the years. Included is a plaque from the Boy Scouts of America, distinguished service awards, and awards from Sioux tribes and South Dakota State University.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs material is composed of correspondence, newsletters, newspaper clippings, and some office paperwork and miscellaneous items collected by Reifel during his years with the Bureau.
The Campaigns series is composed of donation and expense material, which includes bank deposits, statements and receipts, cancelled checks, and receipts related to advertising, travel and general office expenses. Also included are committees, sample ballots, schedules, and the South Dakota Republican Party platform for 1960.
The Collected material is composed of material Reifel collected over the years and includes art books, newspaper clippings, periodicals, programs, poetry, printed material, and miscellaneous items.
The correspondence dates from Reifel's time with the BIA in 1946 until just before his death in 1990. The bulk of the correspondence is from 1961-71, the years Reifel served as U.S. Congressman for the First District, South Dakota. Also included are personal letters from Barry Goldwater, Bob Dole, George McGovern, Gerald Ford, Hubert Humphrey, Karl Mundt, Lyndon Johnson, Nelson Rockefeller, Richard Nixon, and Spiro Agnew.
The Family history material is composed of biographies of Reifel, educational memorabilia, family marriage and death information, information about Reifel's military career, and writing about Reifel written by Reifel.
The memorabilia is composed of campaign material; bumper stickers, cards, pins, pamphlets and flyers, programs, and a US Annotated Code book with Reifel's name embossed on the front cover. The library received the entire series of the US Annotated Code, but kept only one book due to space issues. Also included is presidential inauguration material from John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon and Jimmy Carter. These are inaugurations that Reifel attended and include invitations, booklets, and ticket memorabilia.
The miscellaneous series is composed of appointment books from 1954-1979, guest books from Reifel's office in Washington, D.C., newspaper clippings, periodicals, programs, press releases, a House of Representatives binder from 1968 and writings by Reifel.
The speeches series consists mainly of speeches Reifel gave at various functions. Included are Memorial Day and July 4th celebration speeches and addresses given at high school and university commencement exercises.
The Scrapbooks are composed mainly of newspaper clippings and campaign advertisements.
The Photographs and media are composed of photographs, negatives, audiocassettes, audio reels, films, and videocassettes.
The audio materials consist of campaign advertisements for Reifel and the Republican Party, but also includes radio features for E. Y. Berry and Bill Broomfield. Several audio items detail House bills that Reifel either sponsored or was in favor of, including a health insurance bill, Medicare and several farm issues. Some feature radio spots for fund drives for the Red Cross and the South Dakota Association for Retarded Children. Also included is luncheon and dinner speaking engagements that feature Reifel as a speaker or an honoree. An item of note is an interview conducted by Barbara Fitzgerald for "Kennedy Center Presents." In this interview Reifel talks about his family history and discusses American Indians in South Dakota and the federal government's treatment of the Indian on Reservations. The format of the audiotapes is mainly reels, but also includes a few cassettes. This material is arranged by size.
The films include several filmed speeches, many of which are unidentifiable due to the nature of the media on which they were produced. These will eventually be transferred to a more usable media.
The bulk of the photographs are from Reifel's service as an U.S. Congressman.
SDSU Archives and Special Collections
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South Dakota State University Archives and Special Collections, Hilton M. Briggs Library, Brookings, South Dakota.
Copyright restrictions apply in different ways to different materials. Many of the documents and other historical materials in the Archives are in the public domain and may be reproduced and used in any way. There are other materials in the Archive carrying a copyright interest and must be used according to the provisions of Title 17 of the U.S. Code. The Archive issues a warning concerning copyright restrictions to every researcher who requests copies of documents. Although the copyright law is under constant redefinition in the courts, it is ultimately the responsibility of the researcher to properly use copyrighted material.
SDSU Archives and Special Collections, Hilton M. Briggs Library, "Benjamin Reifel Papers" (2018). Manuscript Archive. 9.