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Many studies on the effects of the traditional row-column classroom arrangement on academic performance have concluded that an action zone-whereby students who sit in the front and middle rows perform better than those seated at the sides and the back-exists. Therefore the traditional classroom arrangement does not provide learning parity for all students based on their seating positions, suggesting therefore, that some students are at a learning disadvantage due to seating position.

The present study investigated the single-row horseshoe design for its learning merits, with an attempt to discover if it offers a learning parity for all students or if it puts some students at a learning disadvantage similar to the row-column arrangement.

Comparative analyses of grades and attendance among the sides and sections of the horseshoe revealed no significant difference, suggesting that in the single-row horseshoe design, students are likely to enjoy learning parity. The single-row horseshoe arrangement is recommended as a classroom design due to its high potential for optimal learning. However, reduction to a one-size-fits-all formal principle is not warranted.



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