Astin (1984) has argued that college students' academic successes vary positively with the quality and quantity of their academic efforts. Despite this claim, empirical research has demonstrated that time spent studying-a prime example of student effort-is only a weak predictor of grades. It is argued in this article that this finding does not refute Astin's claim that effort and grades are related, because academic effort is more than just studying for exams; it is multidimensional. A cross- sectional, correlational research design was used in this study to test the relationship between academic success and the many dimensions of student effort. It was found that present semester grades vary positively with academic commitment, setting and honoring priorities, and time spent studying, but vary inversely with alcohol usage, partying, number of hours spent socializing with friends, absences due to boredom with classes, and absences due to the fatigue associated with excessive socializing and partying.
Arwood, Donald E.
"Measures of Student Effort as Predictors of Student's Grades,"
Great Plains Sociologist: Vol. 8:
1, Article 2.
Available at: https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/greatplainssociologist/vol8/iss1/2