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Diabetes Distress (DD) is a major concern in the diabetes community due to the negative associated outcomes. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of consistent DD screening (PAID scale and supplemental questions), as an intervention to reduce DD in diabetic patients. This study uses a single blind experimental design at a Midwest U.S. Endocrine clinic. The sample size for study will be 100, with roughly 50 samples for each group. Individuals that will be included are: 18 years or older, diagnosed with T2DM, and able to speak and read English. Data collection will occur at already scheduled provider appointments and potential subjects will be identified by clinic staff, evaluated for eligibility, and scheduled for follow up clinic visits. Study staff will make random allocation cards using computer generated random numbers. Subjects assigned to the intervention group will have HbA1c obtained, will self-administer the PAID scale, and clinic staff ask three additional questions. The control group will have HbA1c obtained and will self-administer the PAID scale. No additional questions will be asked by the clinic staff for the control group. Unfortunately, this intervention study was put on hold for 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic which resulted in a moratorium on research. Because the study was unable to be conducted at this time, the use of the DD Assessment as a patient-tailored intervention, requires further research in order to determine its clinical effectiveness in reducing DD.

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South Dakota State University


Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing

Diabetes Distress Assessment as an Intervention

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Nursing Commons



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