South Dakota Native Plant Research
Echinacea angustifolia

Scientific Name

Echinacea angustifolia


Download Seed: The seed is found inside the achene. (66 KB)

Download Seedling: Seedling of purple coneflower grown in research greenhouse at SDSU. (70 KB)

Download Vegetative: The leaves are entire. (87 KB)

Download Flowering: The heads are almost always solitary. (91 KB)

Download Fruiting: The achenes are 4-5 mm long. (131 KB)

Download Stage One: Coneflowers as it starts to flower in early June. (82 KB)

Download Stage Two: Two days after the purple coneflower has started opening to flower. (59 KB)

Download Stage Three: The flower of Echinacea angustifolia two weeks after stage 1 began. (103 KB)

Family Name


Common Name

Purple coneflower, echinacea, snakeroot, Kansa snakeroot, black sampsonnarrow- leaved purple coneflower, scurvy root, Indian head, comb flower, black susans, hedge hog

Native American Name



Echinacea angustifolia is a(n) perennial herbaceous, which grows 1 dm to 6 dm in height. This species is commonly found rocky prairies and plains in Minnesota and NW Iowa. The leaves are alternate. Echinacea angustifolia has purple flowers that bloom from June to July.

Horticulture Notes

Seed Collection: Harvest seeds in late fall. Collect seed that falls easily out of the dried flower head. Seed that is hard to remove is usually bad and difficult to germinate.
Germination: Etherol treatment or stratification in wet peat moss in plastic bag in refrigerator for two to four months- Cover seeds with plastic to make sure they stay moist, should germinate within two weeks.
Vegetative Propagation: Plants can be propagated by division of the crowns or root cuttings
Soils: Prefer well drained soils , but are very tolerant
Light: Full sun
Water: Plants and seeds must be well watered
Notes: An exceptional plant for patio and rock gardens - butterflies love it. Seedlings planted in the spring need water for a few weeks to allow their roots to become established. After that, they will grow with little or no additional care. In the wild you generally find plants with 1 to a few flowering stems, but in the garden we have seen more than 60 flowers per plant. In very wet soils we have seen Fusarium wilt, but aster yellows has been the most troublesome disease in Brookings. When selecting a seed source, look near alfalfa fields where leaf hoppers spread the disease. Usually you will find plants that are disease-free and seeds from these plants often produces offspring with some apparent natural resistance. Gloves should be worn when handling plants and seeds, as they often induce irritation of the skin. Echinacea plants contian large amounts of essential oils and many other biologically active compounds.

Echinacea angustifolia