South Dakota Native Plant Research
Scrophulariaceae : Linaria vulgaris

Scrophulariaceae : Linaria vulgaris


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Family Name


Common Name

Butter-and-eggs, yellow toadflax


Linaria vulgaris is a perennial from a taproot, with 1-several, simple or branched, ascending to erect stems, 30-60 cm tall. The simple, linear leaves are 2.5-5 cm long, 2-6 mm wide, with a pointed end and tapering to a petiolate base. The inflorescence is a crowded, terminal, bracteate raceme. The calyx is deeply 5-parted, the segments unequal, lanceolate and ~ 3 mm long. The yellow corolla is strongly bilabiate and spurred. The upper lip is 8-12 mm long, the lower lip has an orange, hairy palate that is 6-9 mm long, with a straight spur 8-14 mm long. there are 2 short and 2 long stamens, a single pistil with a 2-lobed stigma. The fruit is a globose capsule, 5-9 mm long. Butter and eggs blooms from June into August in disturbed places throughout South Dakota.

Additional Notes

Yellow toadflax is an invasive Eurasian weed first introduced as a garden flower. It is on the states list of noxious weeds and should not be planted.

Scrophulariaceae : Linaria vulgaris