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Understanding how root systems modulate shoot system phenotypes is a fundamental question in plant biology and will be useful in developing resilient agricultural crops. Grafting is a common horticultural practice that joins the roots (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot (scion) of another, providing an excellent method for investigating how these two organ systems affect each other. In this study, we used the French-American hybrid grapevine ‘Chambourcin’ (Vitis L.) as a model to explore the rootstock–scion relationship. We examined leaf shape, ion concentrations, and gene expression in ‘Chambourcin’ grown ungrafted as well as grafted to three different rootstocks (‘SO4’, ‘1103P’ and ‘3309C’) across 2 years and three different irrigation treatments. We found that a significant amount of the variation in leaf shape could be explained by the interaction between rootstock and irrigation. For ion concentrations, the primary source of variation identified was the position of a leaf in a shoot, although rootstock and rootstock by irrigation interaction also explained a significant amount of variation for most ions. Lastly, we found rootstock-specific patterns of gene expression in grafted plants when compared to ungrafted vines. Thus, our work reveals the subtle and complex effect of grafting on ‘Chambourcin’ leaf morphology, ionomics, and gene expression.

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Horticulture Research







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Springer Nature Limited


Copyright © 2019 the Author(s)

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

41438_2019_146_MOESM9_ESM.docx (15 kB)
Supplementary Information

41438_2019_146_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (231 kB)
Figure S1. Schematic representation of ‘Chambourcin’ experimental vineyard located at The University of Missouri Southwest Center Agricultural Experiment Station in Mount Vernon, Missouri, USA.

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Figure S2. Complete ionomic results for 2014 and 2016 divided based on (A) rootstock (B) leaf position (C) rootstock by irrigation.

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Table S1. Results for all factors explaining a significant portion of the variance (p < 0.05) for simple leaf shape descriptors consisting of aspect ratio, circularity, roundness and solidity. For each descriptor, the percent variance explained by the factor and the p-value are reported.

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Table S2.Results for all factors explaining a significant portion of the variance (p < 0.05) for morphometric PC1 to 20. For each significant factor for a PC, the p-value, percent variance explained by the factor, and percent variance captured by the PC are all reported.

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Table S3. Results for all factors explaining a significant portion of the variance (p < 0.05) for each element. For each significant factor for an element, the p-value and percent variance explained by the factor are reported.

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Table S4. VitisNet Pathways that were uniquely positively enriched in a rootstock, or positively enriched in common for all three rootstocks, relative to own-rooted vines. A false discovery rate of 0.25 and nominal p-value of 0.05 were used to identify positive enrichment in each rootstock treatment.

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Table S5. All genes which were significantly expressed in own-rooted vines were compared to genes in vines grafted to each rootstock to determine which ones were significantly differentially expressed. The results of these comparisons are listed. Annotations are from the VCost.v3 (Canaguier et al. 2017) reference annotation.

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Table S6. Genes found to be significantly differentially expressed in vines grafted to only one rootstock when compared to own-rooted vines, or across vines grafted to all rootstocks compared to own-rooted vines, or not differentially expressed across any rootstock treatment, where tested for pathway enrichment.