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kidney stones, factors, development, risk, sugars, diet, fructose, energy drinks, caffeine, B vitamins, sodium, calcium, oxalate, ascorbic acid, animal protein


Kidney stones are common, painful, and expensive to treat. Several factors play a role in the development of stones, particularly the consumption of sugars such as fructose. As such, the consumption of sugary energy drinks contributes to the development of kidney stones. However, there is a lack of understanding behind the mechanism of kidney stone development and the role energy drinks play in stone development. This review analyzes the mechanism of kidney stone development and the effect energy drink consumption has on stone development. Here, we also detail the dietary roles calcium, oxalate, ascorbic acid, and animal protein have on stone development.


South Dakota State University


Copyright © Donovan D. Bentz