Short communication: Characterization of gene expression profiles related to yak milk protein synthesis during the lactation cycle
Journal of Dairy Science
protein synthesisyak mammarymammalian target of rapamycinamino acid and glucose transporters
This research assessed the gene expression patterns related to the synthesis of milk in yak, which is characterized by high fat and protein content but low yield. The yak (Bos grunniens) is one of the most crucial domestic animals in Tibetan life; however, the genetic and molecular factors underlying yak milk protein synthesis remain understudied. Yak mammary biopsies harvested during late-pregnancy (d −15) through the end of subsequent lactation (d 1, 15, 30, 60, 180, and 240) were used to evaluate gene expression via real-time quantitative PCR. The expression pattern of 41 genes encompassing multiple pathways integral to milk protein synthesis including insulin, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase, Jak2-Stat5 signaling, and the expression of glucose and AA transporters was evaluated. Our results confirmed that most upregulated genes increased from d −15 and peaked at d 30 or 60 and then remained relatively highly expressed. Specifically, there was an increased expression of mTOR-related amino acid transporters (SLC1A5, SLC7A5, and SLC36A1), glucose transporters (SLC2A1, SLC2A3, and SLC2A8), Jak2-Stat5 pathway (ELF5), and insulin signaling pathway components (IRS1, PDPK1, and AKT1). For activation of proteins synthesis, MTOR was significantly increased only at d 1. Among inhibitors of mTOR signaling, TSC1 and PRKAA2 were significantly upregulated during lactation. The RPL23 was downregulated among ribosomal components. In conclusion, a critical role for AA and glucose transporters and insulin signaling through mTOR for regulation of yak milk protein synthesis was revealed in this study of the yak mammary gland.
Xia, W.; Osorio, J. S.; Yang, Y.; Liu, D.; and Jiang, M. F., "Short communication: Characterization of gene expression profiles related to yak milk protein synthesis during the lactation cycle" (2018). Dairy Science Publication Database. 2146.