Blood biomarkers through an ex vivo LPS challenge under ketotic conditions in peripartal dairy cows

Document Type


Publication Date



American Dairy Science Association


Journal of Dairy Science




Suppl. 1






ketosis, metabolism, lipopolysaccharide


Negative energy balance is commonly experienced by dairy cows after calving and can lead to metabolic disorders such as ketosis, which can affect the performance and immunity of peripartal dairy cows. This study evaluated the effects of ketotic conditions in postpartal dairy cows on immunological parameters via an ex vivo LPS challenge and its relation to animal performance and blood biomarkers. Fourteen Holstein cows (n = 7/group) were monitored during the peripartal period. A retrospective analysis was performed by measuring blood BHB with the Precision Xtra at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 DIM, and cows were classified as subclinically-ketotic (KET; > 1.4 mmol/L) or non-ketotic (NONKET; <1.4 mmol/L). Blood samples were collected at −30, −15, 5, 14, and 30 DIM to evaluate biomarkers of metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. At 5 DIM, 176 J. Dairy Sci. 103 (Suppl. 1) blood samples were collected for an ex vivo LPS challenge conducted at 0 (control), 0.01 (low dose), and 5 µg of LPS/mL (high dose) for 3.5h. After LPS challenge, the samples were centrifuged and plasma was obtained for biomarker analysis. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to analyze the data. A Group × Day (G × D; P < 0.01) was observed in postpartal DMI, where lower DMI was observed in KET cows than NONKET during 1 and 2 wk postpartum. There was a trend (P = 0.15) for greater milk yield in NONKET cows than KET (37.3 vs 32.4 kg). A G × D (P < 0.01) was observed in NEFA, which resulted in a trend (P ≤ 0.10) for greater NEFA in KET than NONKET at 14 and 30 DIM. There was a trend (P = 0.06) for G × D in haptoglobin, where greater (P < 0.01) haptoglobin was observed in KET than NONKET at 5 DIM. In the ex vivo LPS challenge, a trend (P = 0.06) for Group × LPS was observed in myeloperoxidase (MPO), where MPO tended (P = 0.09) to increase with greater concentrations of LPS in KET while no change (P = 0.29) was observed in NONKET. A Group × LPS (P < 0.01) was observed in IL-1β, where greater (P = 0.05) IL-1β was observed in KET than NONKET at high LPS. These results confirm that ketosis plays an important role in the effective immune response to additional diseases that peripartal dairy cows may endure soon after calving.