Effects of corn distillers dried grains on dough properties and quality of Chinese steamed bread

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Journal of Food Science and Nutrition








Chinese steamed bread (CSB) accounts for 30% of the wheat end‐use in China. CSB was studied as a platform for fiber and protein enrichment, employing corn distillers dried grains. Food grade distiller's grain (FDDG) processed from co‐products from the corn ethanol industry was used as the enrichment ingredient. Since CSB uses a lean formula with little or no added sugar or fat, it relies entirely on fermentation and steaming for flavor and texture development. FDDG was used to replace 0%–25% all‐purpose flour (APF) in CSB formulations. Effects of FDDG on dough properties and quality of CSB were evaluated by instrumental (Farinograph, Mixolab, and Texture Analyzer), nutritional, and sensory methods. Protein and dietary fiber contents showed significant increases to 18.8% and 15.3%, respectively, for 100 g of steamed bread (25% FDDG db). Fiber in 100 g of fresh FDDG CSB ranged from 2.8 to 7.7 g. FDDG fortified doughs demonstrated higher water absorption, while dough development time, dough stability, and dough extensibility decreased significantly with partial APF replacement. FDDG contributed to increased hardness and adhesiveness in the CSB. Crumb analysis revealed reduced number of gas cells at higher FDDG substitution. FDDG enrichment reduced brightness (L*) of flour blends and CSB. Rheological and sensory analysis showed an upper level of FDDG substitution of 15% was acceptable without detriment to dough functionality, texture, and taste. This study provides compositional and food functional attributes of Chinese steam bread fortified with a high protein and high fiber ingredient. Distillers dried grains (38% protein and 40% dietary fiber) from corn was developed for food‐grade application and enrichment of steamed bread.