Application of beta-serum in ice cream manufacturing

Document Type


Publication Date



American Dairy Science Association


Journal of Dairy Science




Suppl. 1






beta-serum, phospholipids, confocal laser scanning microscopy


Beta-serum (BS) is the aqueous product (serum) produced after the phase inversion during the manufacture of anhydrous milk fat. Although its gross composition resembles that of nonfat dry milk (NFDM), BS contains about 6–8% of phospholipids (PLs) on dry basis. Such con- centration of PLs may improve the emulsification during ice cream. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of BS on selected quality parameters of ice cream. A secondary objective was to moni- tor the presence of PLs within the serum phase at different processing steps of ice cream manufacture, including mixing, pasteurization, freezing, and melting. An ice cream formulated with NFDM was used as a control treatment. Ice cream mix formulated with and without BS was centrifuged (4,000 rpm for 30 min) to separate the serum phase (upper phase) and solid phase (lower phase), which were analyzed for total lipids and total phospholipids. Additionally, the presence of PLs in both phases was monitored through confocal laser scanning micros- copy. Overall, the majority of PLs were found at the bottom phase during mixing, pasteurization, and melting. The particle size and zeta potential measurements were observed to be 474.6 ± 13.21 and 564.8 ± 12.7 nm, −37.9 ± 5.90 and −43.1 ± 4.90 mV for the control ice cream and B-serum ice cream, respectively. The PLs reported after meltdown using a sieve (0.833mm) for IC control and B-serum were 58.03 ± 4.10 and 63.47 ± 3.02%, respectively, while before meltdown it was reported 4.04 ± 1.49 and 11.27 ± 0.56%, respectively. The flow cure indicated a shear-thinning behavior for both samples. Therefore, results document the presence of PLs in the manufacturing of ice cream and significant quality attributes in ice cream with the addition of beta-serum.

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