Pulses: Milling and Baking Applications.


C. Hall

Document Type


Publication Date



Gupta, D.-S., Gupta, S., and Kumar, J.


Springer Nature Switzerland AG

Book Title

In Breeding for Enhanced Nutrition and Bio-Active Compounds in Food Legumes






Food legumes, Gluten-free, Flour quality, Pulses protein, Bread, Dough, Cookies, Healthy food


The application of pulses in bakery items is an ideal complement to cereal and starch ingredient use in gluten-free and non-gluten-free products. The addition of pulses to cereal-based products improves nutrition by providing complimentary amino acid to cereal grains and increasing fiber and protein of gluten-free products. This review highlights milling and bakery applications of pulses. In some cases, the information available was reported three decades ago. However, many of these published documents are still relevant today and will serve as a starting point for those interested in milling and incorporation of pulses into bread. The application data for cakes and cookies is relatively new compared to milling information. In general, pulses can be milled effectively using pin, hammer, and roller mills. The resulting flours can be incorporated into bakery products as a whole flour or protein, starch, or fiber fraction. This review highlights some applications. Information regarding particle size effects of pulses in cakes and cookies has been provided. There is no general trend about the impact of particle size on bakery products given that baking systems evaluated impact how particle size influences product quality. The level of pulse fortification also impacts quality, and thus no general recommendation can be made with regard to the usage level for all bakery products. However, pulse fortification of 10% appears to produce acceptable pan breads, while 100% pulse flour can be used in cookies. Therefore, the usage level will be system dependent and research to identify optimal percentages may be needed. The applications presented in this review focus on pea, chickpea, lentil, and beans such as navy, pinto, and black. However, the use of other pulses may be suitable for bakery applications.

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