Ultrafiltered milk reduces bitterness in reduced fat Cheddar cheese made with an exopolysaccharide-producing culture.
Journal of Dairy Science
The objectives were to reduce bitterness in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese made with an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing culture and study relationships among ultra-filtration (UF), residual chymosin activity (RCA), and cheese bitterness. In previous studies, EPS-producing cultures improved the textural, melting, and viscoelastic properties of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. However, the EPS-positive cheese developed bitterness after 2 to 3 mo of ripening due to increased RCA. We hypothesized that the reduced amount of chymosin needed to coagulate UF milk might result in reduced RCA and bitterness in cheese. Reduced-fat Cheddar cheeses were manufactured with EPS-producing and nonproducing cultures using skim milk or UF milk (1.2×) adjusted to a casein:fat ratio of 1.35. The EPS-producing culture increased moisture and RCA in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Lower RCA was found in cheese made from UF milk compared with that in cheese made from control milk. Ultrafiltration at a low concentration rate (1.2×) produced EPS-positive, reduced-fat cheese with similar RCA to that in the EPS-negative cheese. Slower proteolysis was observed in UF cheeses compared with non-UF cheeses. Panelists reported that UF EPS-positive cheese was less bitter than EPS-positive cheese made from control milk. This study showed that UF at a low concentration factor (1.2×) could successfully reduce bitterness in cheese containing a high moisture level. Because this technology reduced the RCA level (per g of protein) to a level similar to that in the control cheeses, the contribution of chymosin to cheese proteolysis would be similar in both cheeses.
Agrawal, P. and Hassan, A. N., "Ultrafiltered milk reduces bitterness in reduced fat Cheddar cheese made with an exopolysaccharide-producing culture." (2007). Dairy Science Publication Database. 824.