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Hyaluronic acid (HA) is now widely known for its ability to bind water and impart texture. The combined effects of HA and kappa-carrageenan (KC) have not yet been investigated, though. In this study, we looked at the synergistic effects of HA and KC (concentrations of 0.1 and 0.25%, and ratios of 85:15, 70:30, and 50:50 for each concentration) on the rheological properties, heat stability, protein phase separation, water-holding capacity, emulsification properties, and foaming properties of skim milk. When HA and KC were combined in various ratios with a skim milk sample, this resulted in lesser protein phase separation and a higher water-holding capacity than when HA and KC were utilized separately. Similarly, for the sample with a 0.1% concentration, the combination of HA + KC blends demonstrated a synergistic impact with greater emulsifying activity and stability. The samples with a concentration of 0.25% did not exhibit this synergistic effect, and the emulsifying activity and stability were mostly due to the HA’s higher emulsifying activity and stability at 0.25% concentration. Similarly, for rheological (apparent viscosity, consistency coefficient K, and flow behavior index n) and foaming properties, the synergistic effect of the HA + KC blend was not readily apparent; rather, these values were mostly due to an increase in the amount of KC in the HA + KC blend ratios. When HC-control and KC-control samples were compared to various HA + KC mix ratios, there was no discernible difference in the heat stability. With the added benefits of protein stability (reduced phase separation), increased water-holding capacity, improved emulsification capabilities, and foaming abilities, the combination of HA + KC would be highly helpful in many texture-modifying applications.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.