Porous Corn Starch Granules as Effective Host Matrices for Encapsulation and Sustained Release of Curcumin and Resveratrol

Document Type


Publication Date



Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a carbohydrate-rich diet-regulated ailment with carbohydrates digested and absorbed rapidly. Hence, modulating carbohydrate digestion is warranted; to this end, polyphenols from plant sources are handy. However, polyphenols' instability and low bioavailability limit their wholesome use, and thus, encapsulating them into an inexpensive and suitable wall material would be the best strategy. Herein, the potential of porous starch granules is demonstrated. Curcumin and resveratrol were chosen as the test polyphenols due to their proven health benefits, and porous corn starch granules were chosen as the wall material. Porous corn starch granules were prepared through enzymatic modification with 11, 22, and 33 units of amyloglucosidase at three reaction times of 2, 4, and 6 h. The polyphenols were loaded at 100, 200, and 500 mg concentrations in 1 g of starch for 21 days and were characterized through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The encapsulation efficiency was determined, the rate of starch digestion was calculated through the Englyst test, and polyphenols' in vitro release behavior in gastric and intestinal fluids was measured. Results suggest that 33 enzyme units for a 2 h reaction time were optimal for forming spherical-oval pores on corn starch granules with the maximum encapsulation efficiency of 80.16 % and 88.33 % for curcumin and resveratrol, respectively. The FTIR results suggest the entrapment of polyphenols inside the starch matrix. The inclusion significantly reduced starch digestion and increased the percentage of resistant starch up to 41.11 % and 66.36 % with curcumin and resveratrol, respectively. The in vitro release behavior demonstrated good stability in the simulated gastric fluids and sustained release in simulated intestinal fluids. The encapsulated polyphenols showed a complex Fickian type of diffusion mechanism. Overall, the results suggest that porous corn starch granules could be a potential delivery system for curcumin and resveratrol and will aid in developing novel functional foods to address the T2DM concerns.

Publication Title

Carbohydrate Polymers



First Page


DOI of Published Version