Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Home Economics

First Advisor

Randal D. Day


As increasing numbers of women enter the labor force, it is becoming apparent women’s views concerning their future lifestyle are changing. The attempt to double-track is resulting in higher incidences of stress in women’s lives. Arnold Rose conducted a study of college females at the University of Minnesota. He discovered that females did not have clear expectations of future roles. He suggested that they had not been afforded the opportunity for relevant and adequate training that would prepare them for these roles. Several researchers have presented theories related to role enactment. The consensus appears to be that the expectations of future roles influences the quality of role enactment. It would appear that a strong argument had been made linking the clarity of future role expectations with quality of role enactment. The present study attempted to construct a theory that could explain the relationship between several aspects of role clarity and the reduction of stress in women chosing to double track. This study then presented a partial test of that theory. The partial test was about the influence of anticipatory socialization on role clarity. Anticipatory socialization was first divided into three categories following the guidelines developed by Cottrell. The three types were labeled first hand, second hand, and third hand to determine which, if any, of the anticipatory socialization experiences influenced the development of high role clarity. In the final analysis, mother’s employment (second hand), household experiences (first hand), and time spent think about the future (third hand) were related to role clarity. It would appear that all three types of anticipatory socialization influence the development of clear and realistic expectations of future roles. Assuring that college females are given the opportunity for varied experiences related to their future roles should therefore assist in reducing the amount of stress they will experience in enacting the double-tracking roles.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Women -- Social conditions
Sex role



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University