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Document Type

Dissertation - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Wildlife and Fisheries Science

First Advisor

David W. Willis


south dakota, crappies, movement patterns, population


Ultrasonic telemetry was used to determine monthly and diel movements of white crappies Pomoxis annularis in a South Dakota glacial lake. Sonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 37 adult white crappies (265-327 mm, total length; 315-530g). From 15 April to 15 October, 1, 712 locations were recorded for 34 of these fish. Movement (m/h; measured along the straight-line distance between successive locations) was highest in May (102.1m/h) and significantly different (P< 0.05) than in April and June. Other than in early spring, movement did not vary significantly among months. White crappies were in significantly shallower lake areas in June and October than in August. White crappies were nearest to shore in April, June, and October and farthest from shore in August. Home range was < 0.1-85.0 hectares with a median of 15.8 hectares, and differed significantly among months. Movement, depth of lake at fish location, and distance from shore differed significantly among diel periods. For diel comparisons where no significant differences were detected, power (1-B) values were low (≤ 0.51). I found weak correlations between environmental variables and movement. It appears that monthly and diel movements are similar between species and among various water bodies where they have beens studied. I sampled 22 black crappie P. nigromaculatus populations to determine the abiotic and biotic components that affect black crappie recruitment, growth, mortality, size structure, and condition in South Dakota waters. Recruitment stability index (RSI) values were best correlated with shoreline development index and watershed: lake area ratio. Growth was inversely correlated with catch per unit effort (CPUE) and was positively correlated with condition by size category. Condition and CPUE were the only independent variables that significantly contributed to multiple regression models for the dependent variable growth. Size structure was inversely correlated with CPUE. Bivariate centroids differed significantly among water body types for canonical analysis; canonical factors scores were derived from growth, recruitment, CPUE, and condition. The differences in black crappie population dynamic and structure characteristics among water bodies facilitates a better understanding of the factors that influence these variables, and illustrates the importance of water body-specific management.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Crappie -- South Dakota
Crappie -- South Dakota -- Seasonal distribution


Includes bibliographical references (page 92-108)



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University


Copyright © 1993 Christopher S. Guy. All rights reserved.