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Tsentao Liu

Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School


First Advisor

Duane Matthees


Acifluorfen, chloramben, 2, 4-D, dicamba and picloram are effective herbicides which have been used in agriculture for some time. The increasing agricultural consumption of these herbicides has led to the possibility of contamination of water and food by their residues and metabolites. Therefore the development of methods for the determination of very low levels of these herbicides in food and water is essential. Chromatographic methods, including paper, thin layer and gas modes, are used for the determination of herbicides. A great disadvantage of these methods is that they involve rather long and sometime complicated procedures compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Currently, most of the analytical methods for herbicides employ Gas Chromatography (GC), but HPLC has some advantages over GC. The selectivity of the mobile phase can be changed, increasing the possibility of achieving satisfactory separation. Another advantage is that HPLC can be used for determination of thermally unstable compounds. The objective of this research was to develop a HPLC method to determine the residues of these acidic herbicides in milk and water. Much of this work involved efforts to improve the extraction recovery, detection limit and separation of the herbicides from the sample matrix and resolution of a mixture of these compounds. This involved a study of a number of experiments in extraction, detection and chromatography.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

High performance liquid chromatography
Chromatographic analysis
Water -- Analysis
Milk -- Analysis
Herbicides -- Analysis



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University