Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy Science

First Advisor

Bonny Specker


The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 months of daily vitamin D3 fortified Process cheese consumption, delivering 600 IU/ vitamin D3 per day, on changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and osteocalcin (OC) among the elderly (>60 years old). The population, consisting of 100 men and women were split into three groups: group 1 consumed Process cheese with no additional vitamin D3 (mean vitamin D intake=529(+/- 69) IU/day), group 2 consumed Process cheese fortified with vitamin D3 (mean vitamin D intake=l 034(+/- 54) IU/day), and group 3 consumed no Process cheese (mean vitamin D intake=340(+/- 38) IU/day). Results show that there were significant differences among groups in 25-OHD at baseline (p=0.04). Individuals in group 2 had higher 25-OHD concentrations than group 3 (p0.05). There were no significant differences in OC values among the three groups. A supplemental study was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of waterdispersible vitamin D2 from Process cheese versus from a distilled water dilution given to a group of individuals 72-84 years old, and another group of 23-50 year old individuals. Each group included four individuals. Each subject initially received a single acute feeding of either Process cheese (delivering 5,880 IU/56.7-g serving) or a water dilution (delivering 32,750 IU/250 mL). Two weeks after the first intervention the subjects consumed a second, single acute feeding of the other food item. Blood samples were collected prior to consuming each vehicle and at 6, 12, and 24 hours post-consumption. The elderly individuals absorbed the vitamin D2, which was used to eliminate the effect of sunlight and has a similar bioavailability as vitamin D3, from both the water dilution and from the Process cheese just as efficiently as the younger individuals. The peak serum vitamin D2 concentration and area under the curve for serum vitamin D2 concentrations were similar between the elderly and the mid-age adults. Vitamin D2 was absorbed more efficiently from Process cheese than from the water dilution. The peak serum vitamin D2 concentration was 14.7(+/- 1.0) ng/mL per 10,000 IU and 1.7(+/- 0.4) ng/mL per 10,000 IU (p

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Vitamin D in human nutrition.
Vitamins -- Bioavailability.
Process cheese.
Older people -- Nutrition.
Vitamins -- Physiological effect.


South Dakota State University



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