Document Type

Dissertation - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Health and Nutritional Sciences

First Advisor

Matthew Vukovich


Osteoporosis, low bone mineral density, and loss of muscle mass are growing problems in aging humans. It has been identified that weight-bearing exercise helps to restore and maintain bone and muscle mass in this population. Although traditionally dietary protein has been considered detrimental to the skeleton, more recently, it is receiving support as a potential benefit. Clinically, protein supplementation has been associated with increased fracture healing in elderly patients. Protein supplementation has also been documented to increase insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a peptide that is anabolic to the bone and muscle. To date, however, the effect of the combination of protein supplementation and exercise training has yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to identify changes that occur in plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), biomarkers of bone turnover, and measures of bone density and geometry during a 6-month strength and conditioning program in college-aged men and women. Results from this study indicate that protein supplementation in conjunction with a 6-month strength and conditioning program increase IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and biomarkers of bone turnover consistent with increases in bone formation. However, 6 months was not adequate to delineate nutritional impact on changes in bone density or geometry.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Isometric exercise -- Physiological aspects.
Proteins in human nutrition.
Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins.
Bone densitometry.


South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright