Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Animal Science

First Advisor

Richard J. Pruitt


Two winter grazing trials were conducted from December to February in consecutive years to determine the effects of source and level of concentrate supplementation on the performance of beef cows grazing native winter range with differing forage availabilities. In year 1 (n = 122) and year 2 (n = 127) pregnant spring calving Simmental x Angus crossbred cows were used in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with two forage availabilities and four supplemental treatments. Pelleted supplements were formulated to provide 1) .34 kg CP and 2.12 Meal ME/d from soybean meal (SBM), 2) .68 kg CP and 9.40 Meal ME/d from corn-soybean meal (CS), 3) .34 kg CP and 4.71 Meal ME/d from low wheat middlings (LWM), and 4) .68 kg CP and 9.40 Meal ME/d from high wheat middlings (HWM). Four ruminally fistulated steers (765 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to determine the effects of supplements (year 1) on forage intake, total tract digestibility, ruminal nutrient vi disappearance, and ruminal pH when fed mature, low protein hay. Supplements were fed to steers in proportional amounts to the cows based on BW·75. Cows grazing the high available forage pasture gained more (P

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds
Beef cattle -- Nutrition
Hay as feed
Beef cattle -- Wintering




South Dakota State University



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