Mariah Weber

Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Health and Nutritional Sciences

First Advisor

Kendra Kattelmann


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of an education program, including motivational interviewing, which encouraged the consumption of an additional 9 ounces of red meat per week on the markers of iron status in physically active females. Methods: Twenty-five physically active females (18-24 years) were stratified by iron intake and randomized to either a Beef group (n=13) or a Control group (n=12). Intervention participants were encouraged to consume 9 ounces of beef per week above baseline and received weekly education on beef cookery and health benefits followed by motivational interviewing sessions. Control participants were instructed not to change their diet and were monitored weekly for compliance. All participants were required to vigorously exercise five days per week (45-60 minutes per day) for 10 weeks. Average beef consumption, c-reactive protein, serum iron, heme-iron consumption, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin concentration, and transferrin saturation were measured at baseline, 10 weeks and 6 months. Participants were categorized as iron deficient if presented with a serum ferritin <15ng/mL. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP®7. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with time and group (Beef vs. Control) as factors were used to determine the main effect of training on variables measured. Significance was reached at pResults: The average consumption of beef was significantly greater for the Beef group compared to the Control group during the 10-week intervention. All Beef participants met their beef consumption goals 8 of the 10 weeks for a compliance rate of 80%. Despite a high compliance rate during the 10-week intervention, the amount of beef consumed at the 6-month follow-up returned to pre-intervention levels. Iron intake, heme-iron intake, and non-heme iron intake were higher in the Beef group compared to the Control group throughout the intervention and at the 6-month follow-up. There was a slight decline (p≤0.15, 10 week vs. baseline) in serum iron concentrations during the 10 weeks for both groups. There was no difference between Beef and Control groups in their response to the intervention. At the 6-month follow-up, serum iron increased in both groups as compared to the 10-week values. Serum ferritin concentrations declined during the 10-week intervention (p=0.05, 10wks vs. baseline) but rebounded at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusion: The data from this study suggest that an education program, which included motivational interviewing, was associated with increased beef consumption during the intervention but not at 6-months post. Education and motivational interviewing to increase beef consumption was not associated with effects on selected measures of iron status in physically active females.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Iron in the body
Women athletes -- Nutrition
Health education




South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright