Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Graduate Nursing

First Advisor

William McBreen


The purpose of this research study is to examine the relationship between hope and spirituality among well elderly who are living independently. In addition, demographic variables will be examined in relation to hope and spirituality. Hope has been found to influence psychological and physical well-being (Carson, Soeken, Shanty & Terry, 1990) while the spiritual dimension of individuals has been found to be a major component in a person's overall well-being (Banks, 1980). Since one of nursing's 9oals is to enhance the patients' psychological, physical and ultimately the overall well-being, it seems pertinent that these concepts be examined and possibly utilized to enhance an individual's well-being. Two of the research questions of the study focus on the demographic characteristics of gender, age, marital status, financial status, and educational level in relation to hope and spirituality. The remaining two questions look at the relationship of hope and its subdivisions in relation to spirituality. Instruments used for the study were the Herth Hope Scale (HHS), the Spiritual Perspective Scale, and the \ Older Americans Resources and Services Program (OARS) Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire (MFAQ). This descriptive correlational study utilized a non-random convenience sample (n=77) of well elderly individuals from one city in the Midwest United States. General findings included positive relationships between spirituality and gender (r=0.3416, p=0.002), hope and spirituality (r=0.2460, p=0.031), and subdivisions Factor 1 and Factor 3 of the hope scale to spirituality (r=0.2988, p=0.010; r=0.2586, p=0.027; respectively).

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Older people -- Psychology
Older people -- Religious life




South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright