Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Nutrition, Food Science, and Hospitality


Lifestyle and activity have important effects on bone mineral density (BMD), and a high BMD is associated with reduced fracture risk. A large amount of the variability in BMD is determined by genetics; however, choosing to optimize your genetic potential through diet and bone loading activities can reduce lifelong risks of fractures. Food groups such as fruits and vegetables play an important role in the upkeep of good health, because fruit and vegetables are alkaline-producing foods, high, long-term ingestion may have a beneficial effect on bone health. Baseline data on 685 healthy adults, aged 20 to 66 years, involved in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study (SDRBHS) were used. Of these, 349 were classified as rural and 336 were classified as non-rural. The results of this cross-sectional study of BMD and fruit and vegetable intake based on a food frequency questionnaire did not support a relationship between BMD and fruit and vegetable intake. Although there were some differences among quartiles, it was not in a predictable manner and often the lowest quartile of fruit and vegetable Intake had the highest BMD.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Bone densitometry

Fruit in human nutrition

Vegetables in human nutrition



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright