Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Animal Science

First Advisor

Ryan Samuel


Trace mineral requirements to optimize production for swine are not well defined, leading to excess trace mineral supplementation in swine diets and ultimately to excess trace minerals excreted in swine manure. Potential strategies to reduce the waste of excess trace minerals in diets include utilizing organic sources with higher bioavailability or reducing the overall trace mineral supplementation in the diet. Two studies were conducted in an effort to determine if utilizing organic trace minerals or reducing trace mineral inclusion into diets has an impact on overall performance measurements for nursery and grow-finish pigs, respectively. The first experiment utilized 1,144 weaned pigs (21-d of age, 5.8 ± 0.1 kg) in a 42-d nursery trial to evaluate the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) and organic zinc (Zn) on growth performance, gut permeability, and fecal consistency. Dietary treatments were applied in a factorial arrangement and consisted of a complex commercial nursery diet with Zn at nutritional requirement (NRC, 2012) with: 1) no additional Zn, 2) addition of Zn from ZnO, 3) addition of Zn from organic Zn, or 4) a combination of ZnO and organic Zn. Zinc from ZnO was provided at 3000 ppm for PH1-2, 1500 ppm for PH3, and removed at PH4 and Zn from organic Zn was provided at 100 ppm for PH1-4. Dietary treatments were replicated eleven times and each pen contained 26 pigs balanced for sex. Data was analyzed as a 2 x 2 factorial design comparing factors of Zn source (ZnO vs. organic Zn) and Zn inclusion (with or without the addition of ZnO or organic Zn) and the interaction between factors as the main effects with pen as the experimental unit. The addition of organic Zn increased (P0.05) observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F between pigs fed full or 50% trace mineral supplementation. This supports previous observations that reducing or eliminating dietary trace mineral supplementation does not impact pig performance. In contrast, the accumulated concentration of Fe (230 vs. 136 ppm) and Mn (63 vs. 32 ppm) in the pit manure samples were reduced (P0.05) in carcass characteristics between pigs supplemented with the different rates of dietary trace mineral. In overall conclusion, supplementation of Zn early in the nursery period provided benefits to growth performance and improved fecal consistency, with no measured impact on gut permeability. Reducing trace mineral inclusion level for grow-finish pigs did not impact growth performance or carcass characteristics, but did decrease the trace mineral concentrations found in the feces and pit manure. These results suggest that supplementation of organic Zn at lower concentrations than pharmacological levels of ZnO has the potential to produce similar benefits in weaned pigs and reducing trace mineral supplementation in diets for grow-finish pigs can reduce trace mineral excretion in the manure without any impact on productivity.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Swine -- Feeding and feeds.
Swine -- Nutrition.
Swine -- Growth.
Trace elements in the body.
Feed additives.
Swine -- Manure -- Environmental aspects.

Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright