Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Agronomy, Horticulture, and Plant Science

First Advisor

Bruce Bleakley

Second Advisor

Emmanuel Byamukama


Bacterial leaf streak, Biorationals, Nanomaterials, Plant extracts, Wheat, Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the United States. Most wheat varieties are susceptible to bacterial leaf streak (BLS), a major disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtpvu). BLS is challenging to manage since common chemicals do not provide adequate control. Nanomaterials and plant extracts have shown potential to provide a sustainable environmentally friendly control of animal and plant diseases. However, limited data are available on the efficacy of plant extracts and nanomaterials controlling BLS in wheat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and nanomaterials against Xtpvu. An in-vitro study was conducted with five treatments: nano-ZnO, nano-MgO, and nano-CuO amended with polyvinylpyrrolidone surfactant, were prepared at 2000 ppm each, with sterile water and Agrimycin as control checks. For the in-vitro study, a 100 μL aliquot of each treatment was collected at 12, 24, 48, & 72 hours and plated on King’s B agar medium, and colony forming units (CFUs)/mL were determined after three days to quantify Xtpvu growth. The experiment was conducted twice. Results showed that; CuO, MgO and ZnO nanomaterials had antibacterial properties against Xtpvu. In the greenhouse and field, all plots were artificially inoculated with Xtpvu two days before treatments (CuO, MgO and ZnO nanomaterials and moringa, spirulina, ginseng, and tannic acid; with sterile water and Agrimycin as control checks) were applied. To assess BLS, 10 randomly selected plants per plot were rated based on the percentage of leaf area with BLS symptoms, and yield was determined by combine harvesting each plot and adjusted to bushels per acre at 13.5% moisture content. Nano-CuO, moringa and tannic acid had the highest antibacterial effect among all treatments tested. These results show that nano-CuO, tannic acid and moringa have potential to control Xtpvu.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Wheat -- Disease and pest resistance.
Bacterial diseases of plants.
Leaf spots.
Nanostructured materials.
Plant extracts.

Number of Pages



South Dakota State University



Rights Statement

In Copyright