Document Type

Dissertation - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Animal Science


Deep-fat fried foods have universal appeal. Consumers enjoy the eating experience they get when consuming deep-fat fried foods (Clark and Serbis, 1991). Yearly per capita consumption of fats and oils was estimated at 65.7 lbs in 1993 (USDA, 1993). Even with recent trends towards more healthy diets, deep-fat fried foods seem to be a category of high-fat foods that consumers are not willing to give up. Pressure from health conscious groups forced the fast-food industry to move from animal-based frying oils to vegetable based oils because of the perceived healthiness of vegetable oils. The fast-food companies quickly learned that vegetable oils did not offer the stability and functionality of animal oils. This led to the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils. Hydrogenation increases the stability of vegetable oils by increasing the amount of saturation and level of trans fatty acids in the oil. In this study, we evaluated the use of 100% hydrogenated soybean oil (SBO), 100% beef tallow (TAL), and a blend of 50% hydrogenated soybean oil and 50% beef tallow (50/50) in frying three different products (french fried potatoes, chicken nuggets, and beef fingers). Products were evaluated-for color, consumer acceptability, cooking performance, chemical composition, and fatty acid profile. Oils containing up to 50% beef tallow when used for frying french fries, chicken nuggets, and beef fingers had no adverse effects on color, consumer acceptability, chemical composition, or cooking performance. Frying French fries, chicken nuggets, or beef fingers in SBO raised the total trans fatty acid content and lowered the cis/trans fatty acid ratio of the final product. The greatest impact was on the trans 18: 1 fatty acid content. Frying French fries, chicken nuggets, or beef fingers in SBO, 5 0/50, or TAL had no effect on the total cis fatty acid level of the cooked product. Beef tallow had less trans fatty acids than 50/5 0 or SBO.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Deep frying Soy oil Tallow



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University