Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy and Food Science

First Advisor

Md Elias Uddin


probiotics, rumen microbiome, transition cow


The transition period is a crucial stage in the lactation cycle and can lead to significant metabolic changes in cows. The use of nutritional interventions, such as direct-fed microbials, may assist cows during the transition from pregnancy to early lactation, reducing the occurrence of metabolic disorders and improving overall health. The primary goal of this study was to assess the effects of a commercial rumen-derived directfed microbial (DFM) product (Galaxis™ Frontier (GF) Native Microbials Inc., CA, USA) on various factors such as performance, blood biomarkers, rumen fermentation, and bacterial population in dairy cows during the transition period up to 100 d in milk (DIM). Overall, the results showed that rumen derived DFM supplementation could promote positive responses on performance, such as milk yield and feed efficiency. In the rumen, the DFM product contributed to increased butyrate and valerate, accompanied by an improved ruminal abundance of lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. Moreover, DFM supplementation may have influenced lipid metabolism, leading to greater oxidative stress and inflammation within non-pathological levels. In conclusion, our study suggests that supplementing DFM during the transition period to mid-lactation can positively impact lactation performance and the rumen environment, indicating an overall beneficial effect.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Holstein-Friesian cattle -- Nutrition.
Holstein-Friesian cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Health aspects.
Feed additives.
Rumen fermentation.
Rumen -- Microbiology.
Microbial diversity.


South Dakota State University

Included in

Dairy Science Commons



Rights Statement

In Copyright