Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Huitian Lu


Consumption, Graph Theory, Particle Systems, Production, PUFF Dispersion Model, Vehicle Routing Problem


A simulation platform is developed for quantifying the change in productivity of an economy under passive and active emission control mechanisms. The program uses object-oriented programming to code a collection of objects resembling typical stakeholders in an economy. These objects include firms, markets, transportation hubs, and boids which are distributed over a 2D surface. Firms are connected using a modified Prim’s Minimum spanning tree algorithm, followed by implementation of an all-pair shortest path Floyd Warshall algorithm for navigation purposes. Firms use a non-linear production function for transformation of land, labor, and capital inputs to finished product. A GA-Vehicle Routing Problem with multiple pickups and drop-offs is implemented for efficient delivery of commodities across multiple nodes in the economy. Boids are autonomous agents which perform several functions in the economy including labor, consumption, renting, saving, and investing. Each boid is programmed with several microeconomic functions including intertemporal choice models, Hicksian and Marshallian demand function, and labor-leisure model. The simulation uses a Puff Dispersion model to simulate the advection and diffusion of emissions from point and mobile sources in the economy. A dose-response function is implemented to quantify depreciation of a Boid’s health upon contact with these emissions. The impact of emissions control on productivity and air quality is examined through a series of passive and active emission control scenarios. Passive control examines the impact of various shutdown times on economic productivity and rate of emissions exposure experienced by boids. The active control strategy examines the effects of acceptable levels of emissions exposure on economic productivity. The key findings on 7 different scenarios of passive and active emissions controls indicate that rate of productivity and consumption in an economy declines with increased scrutiny of emissions from point sources. In terms of exposure rates, the point sources may not be the primary source of average exposure rates, however they significantly impact the maximum exposure rate experienced by a boid. Tightening of emissions control also negatively impacts the transportation sector by reducing the asset utilization rate as well as reducing the total volume of goods transported across the economy.


South Dakota State University


Rights Statement

In Copyright