Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Natural Resource Management

First Advisor

Lora Perkins


ecological restoration, herbicide, herbicide drift, ivermectin, native plants, Northern Great Plains


Agricultural chemicals are ubiquitous on the Northern Great Plains landscape and have negative impacts on non-target plant communities, even at small doses. Northern Great Plains grassland plant communities may experience herbicide drift from agricultural fields or be subject to livestock pharmaceuticals in grazing lands. My research objective was to evaluate if and how native plants are affected by agricultural chemical presence at different concentrations. In Chapter 2, I studied the effect of different concentrations of three common agricultural herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, and trifluralin) on the germination, emergence, and growth of native plant species of the Northern Great Plains. I performed growth chamber and greenhouse experiments in which seeds were treated with a range of herbicide concentrations found in herbicide drift. My results show that these herbicides can negatively affect certain native plant species' germination, emergence, and growth at a wide range of concentrations. In Chapter 3, I performed a growth chamber experiment to study the effect of two concentrations of ivermectin on the germination and growth of Northern Great Plains native plant species. My results show that four of 14 study species were negatively affected by high and low residual levels of ivermectin. This information can be used to recommend which species may perform well in ecological restorations adjacent to agricultural fields and how livestock management decisions may affect native plant communities.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Plants -- Effect of agricultural chemicals on -- Great Plains.
Endemic plants -- Great Plains.
Grasslands -- Great Plains.
Restoration ecology.
Herbicides -- Environmental aspects.


South Dakota State University



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