Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Civil and Environmental Engineering


The Information Collection Rule (ICR) was a direct repercussion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEP A) regulatory negotiations held in 1992. These negotiations determined that there was an insufficient quantity of scientific data needed to develop future microbial and disinfection by-products (DBPs) regulations. The ICR, proposed in the Federal Register Feb. 10, 1994 and published as a final rule on May 14, 1996, is perhaps the most complex nationwide attempt to collect and compile water quality data over a fixed period of time. One portion of the ICR, requires large Public Water Systems (PWS) that meet certain criteria to conduct bench- or pilot-scale treatment studies that remove DBP precursors. The City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota is one of these large PWS that is required to perform an ICR treatment study. The City of Sioux Falls elected to use the rapid bench-scale membrane test (RBSMT) to collect data for ICR compliance. This thesis reports results of the RBSMT testing procedure used to predict DBPs precursors at a full- scale facility for the City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The intent of the this thesis was to construct the RBSMT and follow appropriate testing procedures for the removal of DBP precursors for the City of Sioux Falls water purification plant. The water purification plant receives its raw water from a blend of groundwater and surface water. This research evaluated four different nanofiltration membranes produced by three manufacturers, quarterly for a one-year period. All four membranes investigated in this study successfully removed DBP precursors (TOC) and DBPs (measured by SDS tests) from the water. Permeate THM4 and HAA6 concentrations of the membrane permeates were well below the Stage 1 MCLs, and in many cases, below the method minimum reporting level. In all cases, DBP concentrations were also below the proposed Stage 2 MCL's of 40 mg/L and 30 mg/L for THM4 and HAA6, respectively.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Water -- Purification -- Disinfection Water -- Purification -- Organic compounds removal Nanofiltration Water treatment plants -- South Dakota -- Sioux Falls



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University