Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Health, Physical Education, and Recreation


The purpose of this study is to collect normative data on baseball players from different collegiate divisions. Twenty-nine healthy collegiate baseball players (11 NAIA, 18 NCAA Division II) participated in the study. Each NAIA subjects' shoulder was evaluated using a Biodex Multi-Joint System (Biodex Corporation, Shirley, NY). Each NCAA Division II subjects' shoulder was evaluated using a Cybex Norm Isokinetic Dynamometer (Model 770, Cybex International, Inc., Ronkonkoma, New York) isokinetic strength evaluation. The NAIA subjects had a mean age of20.7 years (SD± 1.4), a mean height of 185.9 cm (SD± 4.1), and a mean weight of 89.6 kg (SD± 13.5). There were 10 right-handed players and 1 left-handed player. The NCAA Division II subjects had a mean age of20.l years (SD± 1.5), a mean height of 185.4 cm (SD± 5.0), and a mean weight of 83.3 kg (SD± 9.6). There were 13 right-handed players and 5 lefthanded players. Isokinetic strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators was assessed at 180 and 300 deg•sec- 1. There were no consistent significant differences found between the two collegiate divisions. Two conclusions can be made to help explain the results; 1) NCAA Division II baseball players from this institution are not training correctly to increase shoulder strength, and/or 2) there are no differences between players at the two institutions. Another study needs to be completed comparing different NCA Division II and NAIA schools. Further research between different collegiate divisions should allow further insight into the differences between the two divisions.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Baseball players -- Physiology Pitching (Baseball) -- Physiological aspects Shoulder joint -- Range of motion Shoulder joint -- Rotator cuff



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University