Assessing the Healthfulness of Campus Dining Environments Using “Full Restaurant Evaluation Supporting a Healthy (FRESH) Dining Environment” Tool

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This audit assessed dining halls/cafeterias (DH), fast food (FF), sit-down (SD) and delivery restaurants. Healthfulness of Foods subscale (HEFS) consisted of 12 items assessing menu descriptions, food preparation and healthful foods availability; (a¼.813) (total possible points were 60). Dining Environment Supports subscale (DESS) consisted of 10 items assessing nutrition information/labeling, signage/posters, portion/cup sizes, pricing, etc. (a¼.753) (total possible points were 50). Each criterion was scored using a five-point semantic-differential scale, a score of “1” provided little or no support for selecting healthy foods, and “5” provided extensive options or high support for healthy food selection. Research assistants were trained and completed interrater reliability > 80% before data collection. Inter-class correlations (ICC), non-parametric, and ANOVA with Fisher’s LSD post hoc statistics were conducted. Through 15 schools 362 dining venues were evaluated (14.6% DH, 55% FF, 26% SD, 4.4% delivery). ICC results were appropriate [.89 to .99] For DH, FF, SD, and delivery; average HEFS scores were 29.45 12.17, 19.67 7.75, 24.0 9.64, 18.47 4.79 respectively; and average DESS scores were 22.10 5.27, 18.8 4.53, 20.27 4.95, 16.333.75, respectively. Between the 15 schools there were significant differences on both the HEFS and the DESS scores F (13,338) ¼ 2.893, p<.05 and DESS score F (13,339) ¼ 1.902, p<.05. This simplified FRESH dining environment audit effectively assessed the healthfulness of the foods and the environmental supports, and determined differences in the overall FRESH dining environment on college campuses.

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Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics





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