The three-dimensional (3D) velocity fields under breaking waves were measured using a Volumetric Three-Component Velocimetry (V3V) system. The V3V instrumentation determines the 3D positions and velocities of seed particles within a 3D measurement volume by using a synchronized laser-camera system and image processing algorithms. Measured velocity fields showed 3D vortex structures descending to the bottom and quickly dissipating as breaking waves propagated onshore.
"Measurements of Three-Dimensional Velocity Fields Under Breaking Waves,"
The Journal of Undergraduate Research: Vol. 11, Article 3.
Available at: https://openprairie.sdstate.edu/jur/vol11/iss1/3