Asteraceae : Helianthus tuberosus
Native American Name
Lakota: pȟaŋǧí zí
Helianthus tuberosus is a perennial herb, growing from a tuberous rhizome, reaching 1 m to 3 m in height. The simple, leaves are opposite at the base of the plant, becoming alternate toward the top. The blades are ovate to lanceolate, 10-25 cm long, 6-15 cm wide and tapered at the base, forming a winged petiole. The leaf margins are usually toothed, and the lower surface covered with short woolly hairs. The inflorescence is composed of several to numerous heads, each with a disk 1-3 cm in diameter. The involucral bracts are in several series and slightly exceeding the disk. There are 10-20 yellow ray flowers with ligules 2-4 cm long surrounding many yellow disk flowers. The achenes are 5-7 mm long and lack hairs. Jerusalem artichoke blooms from August into October on open or shaded moist sites throughout South Dakota.