Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Award Date


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department / School

Dairy and Food Science

First Advisor

Padmanaban Krishnan

Second Advisor

Joseph Cassady


High β glucan (GMI 423) and low β glucan (Natty) varieties of oats grown in South Dakota were evaluated for fortification of yeast fermented oat-wheat flat bread (Naan). Naan employs a simple formula as well as fermentation and high-temperature tandoor oven baking (700 degrees F) for flavor development and shelf stability. Par-baking was employed for practicality of flavor development and freezing for subsequent heating and consumption. Wheat all-purpose flour (APF) and high protein flour (HPF) were fortified at 0% (control), 5%, 10%, and 20% using two cultivars of oats, namely, Natty and GMI 423. Dough rheology was measured to determine the effects of flour replacement and β glucan and oat protein enrichment on dough characteristics. The presence of oat gums in oat flour increased flour water absorption. The incorporation of oat flour in HPF had no significant effects on peak mixing times suggesting that no adjustments need to be made to this processing step. The inclusion of oat flour reduced dough stability in HPF while it had no significant effect on dough stability of APF. The dough extensibility decreased with the incremental addition of oat flour in both base flours, APF and HPF. Food products that need expansion in cooking stages require greater extensibility in the dough and this might be a concern with high inclusion rates of oat flour in food formulations. Sensory analysis involving panelists (N= 15) showed that naan with 20% oat flour received high scores for both APF and HPF naan based on a hedonic rating scale of 1 to 5. Texture was the single concern in cooked naan among the sensory traits (taste, appearance, and overall quality) evaluated by the panel. Nutritional analysis showed significant improvement in protein, beta glucan, and Total Dietary Fiber content of naan fortified with oat flour in comparison to the control flat breads. A single serving size (100g) of Naan fortified with 20% high beta glucan oat flour in APF provided 1.18g of beta glucan, 10.7g of protein content. Correspondingly, a single serving size of naan fortified with 20% high beta glucan oat four in HPF provided 1.03g beta glucan and 11g protein.

Number of Pages



South Dakota State University

Available for download on Monday, May 05, 2025

Included in

Food Science Commons



Rights Statement

In Copyright