Debra Pankow

Document Type

Thesis - University Access Only

Award Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department / School

Sociology and Rural Studies


One hundred and twelve farm and ranch operator couples completed surveys that were used to discover their level of retirement preparation. Retirement preparation was conceptualized as consisting of three activities: retirement planning, retirement savings level and retirement investments level. A dyadic or couple locus of control was hypothesized to be related to increased levels of retirement preparation activities. Although the couples in this study had plans to use assets, including business assets to fund their retirement, households were found to have participated in few retirement planning activities and to have low levels of savings earmarked for retirement. The dyadic locus of control was found unrelated to any of the three components of retirement preparation while the household financial manager's locus of control was found to be related to the household's level of planning and savings for retirement. Implications for educators, practitioners and the farm and ranch audience are discussed.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Retirement -- Planning Farmers -- Retirement -- North Dakota Farmers -- Retirement -- South Dakota Ranchers -- Retirement -- North Dakota Ranchers -- Retirement -- South Dakota Finance, Personal



Number of Pages



South Dakota State University